Soybean Cultivation – How to Grow Soybeans in India
Soybeans, also known as golden beans belong to the legume family. It is native to East Asia. These soybeans are the best source of protein and also an excellent source of fiber. Oil extracted from soybeans contains a small amount of saturated fat. In Punjab, it plays a significant role in crop diversification.
Soybean is a bushy, free-branching annual legume. It grows from 12 to 36 inches (30–91 cm) tall. Stems and leaves are hairy. The flowers are white with lavender shading. The pods thrive in clusters of three to five, 1 to 4 inches (2.5–10 cm) long. Each fuzzy pod contains 2 – 4 seeds. There are over 10,000 varieties of soybeans. Colors range from black to brown, white, grey, green, yellow, and striped. Seeds can be as small as peas or as large as kidney beans.
When you start Soybean Cultivation, choose the equipment made according to the relevant agriculture, which is most important. However, farmers mostly use the Massey 245 tractor in every farming. Therefore, you should be aware and careful regarding every requirement in the business.
Process of Soybean Cultivation in India
1. Planting Soybeans
Plant soybeans in full sun; Soybeans will tolerate partial shade, but the yield will be reduced. It grows best in loose, well-draining soil rich in organic matter. Soybeans prefer a soil pH of 6.0 to 6.8 and it is tolerant of poor soil.
Planting and spacing:-
Sow soybean seeds 1 to 2 inches (2.5-5 cm) deep, 2 – 4 inches (5-10cm) apart in rows 24 to 30 inches (61-76 cm) apart. Thin successful seedlings 4 to 6 inches (1015cm) apart; Cut off thin shoots with ground-level scissors, and be careful about the remaining plants’ roots. Do not soak the seeds before planting the soybeans and over-water immediately after planting and also too moist seeds can rot and germinate poorly.
Cucumbers, corn, strawberries, potatoes, celery, summer savory. Do not plant it with onion or garlic.
2. Caring for Soybean Cultivation
Water and Feed:-
Keep the beds evenly moist until the soybeans burrow into the soil. Water regularly during flowering and pod formation. Avoid overhead watering, which can cause flower and pod drop—mulch when the soil warms above 60°F (16°C) to conserve soil moisture. Before sowing, add aged manure to the planting beds—side-dress soybeans with aged manure in mid-season. Avoid adding nitrogen-rich fertilizers to the planting beds. Soybeans, like other legumes, establish a mutualistic exchange with soil microorganisms called nitrogen-fixing bacteria to produce nitrogen compounds used by the plant.
Avoid handling soybeans when soybeans are wet or heavily covered with dew; This fungus can spread spores. Keep the beds weed-free; Cultivate carefully around soybeans so as not to damage the plant’s shallow root system. You should mulch to preserve soil moisture after the soil has warmed. Rotate soybeans and other beans to add nitrogen to the soil.
The container growing:-
Farmers can grow soybeans in containers up to 8 inches deep; The space required for a usable harvest makes soybeans a poor choice for container growing.
Soybeans are rarely tolerating pests. Retain the garden clean and free from debris so pests can not harbour in the garden.
Soybeans are rarely attacked by a disease. Rotate beans to not thrive in the same location more than every three years.
3. Harvesting and Storing Soybeans
For green shell beans, harvest soybeans when the pods are green and thick, usually 2 to 3 inches (5-7 cm.) long, about half-ripe. Soybeans are ready for harvesting 45 to 65 days after sowing for peeling and fresh use. Dried soybeans need 100 or more days to harvest. The soybean reaches maturity simultaneously. Pull the entire plant and hang it upside down to dry. Once the pods are completely dry, unwrap the dried beans.
With or without the skin, soybeans will keep in the refrigerator for up to a week. After that, peeled soybeans can be frozen, canned or dried. To make shelling easier, put the pods in boiling water for one minute. After that, you can store dry peel soybeans in a cool, dry place for 10 to 12 months.
There are over 10,000 varieties of soybeans. The green-seeded varieties are considered the tenderest and best-tasting. Black seed pods are used for drying. The yellow seeds are used to make soy milk and also for flour. Select a variety suitable for your growing region; Check with a nearby agricultural extension for recommendations.
You should not be eating raw soybeans; They contain a trypsin inhibitor that inhibits the digestion of proteins—green soybeans in boiling water for a few minutes and then submerge them in an ice-water bath. Boil the sprouted pulses for at least 5 minutes before eating.
Need the Equipment for Soybeans Farming
When you want to grow something, you need equipment to get a better yield because today, equipment plays a major role in farming. However, farming requires various tools such as rotavator, cultivator, tractor, and many other types of equipment. The tractor is important among equipment, and farmers usually use the Massey tractor 241 in soybean cultivation.
For more information regarding the soybeans farming Business in India, stay tuned with us.